منابع پایان نامه با موضوع Translation، تحصیلات تکمیلی

امضاء 1- دکتر حسین صبوری
امضاء 2- دکتر عبدالله باقری حمیدی
مدیر گروه دکتر محمود شکر الهی فر
مدیر امور پژوهشی و تحصیلات تکمیلی دکتر علی ستاری
معاونت امور پژوهشی و تحصیلات تکمیلی
To My Dear Parents And My Darling Spouse
Acknowledgement
I would like to express my deep gratitude and great appreciation to my supervisor Dr. Bahloul Salmani whose guidance and patience made me finish my thesis and his encouragement moved me to choose the topic and the research model and also to Rokhsare Sohrabi, the master of linguistics, whose knowledge and professional comments showed a new way on translation studies. I would like to thank all my professors in Nabiacram College, which did their best to increase my knowledge in translation studies.
Abstract
The process of translation involves at least two languages and variety of messages which can be called form and meaning. In fact, the meaning is the message which is transferred by various features and it is the task of the translator to transfer the meaning of the source text into the target text.As it is known, in transferring the meaning some factors are involved such as the gender of translator and so on. In this research, the researcher made it clear that the gender of translator is one of these factors that affected the translation.The criteria of comparison between male and female translation was Wardaugh and in accuracy in translation was the model of Waddington Method A about accuracy in translation which had eight factors to compare translation which was involved: contresens, fauxsens, nonsense, Addition, omission, unresolved extralinguistic references, loss of meaning and inappropriate linguistic variation.The data was selected from the novel “And the Mountains Echoed” and two translation of it from a male translator by the name of “Mehdi Qebrayi” and a female one by the name of “Nastaran Zahiri” and as a result it was shown that the translation of the male translator was somehow different and maybe more accurate than the female one according to Waddingtn.So, this research showed that gender of translator had some effects on the accuracy of translation in literary text.
Key words: Gender in translation, accuracy in translation, author-oriented translation.
Table of Contents
Table of contents ……………..………………………………….………………………….I
List of tables ………………………………………………………………………..……… III
Abbreviations …………………….……………………………………………..…….….. IV
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTIOIN
1. Introduction 2
1.1. Overview 2
1.2. Statement of the Problem: 4
1.3. Purpose of the Study: 7
1.4. Statement of Research Questions: 7
1.5. Significance of the Study: 7
1.6. Definition of Key Terms: 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
2. Review of the Related Literature 11
2.1. Overview 11
2.2. Language and gender 12
2.3. Translation 18
2.4. Translation and accuracy 24
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3. Methodology 31
3.1. Research Method and Approaches 31
3.2. Corpus of the Study and samples 31
3.3. TheoreticalFramework 32
3.4. Restatement of Research Questions 37
3.5. Procedure 37
3.6. Design 38
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4. Data Analysis, Results and Discussion 41
4.1. Overview 41
4.2. Analysis of Samples 41
4.3. Samples 42
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
5. Conclusion, implications and suggestions for further research 79
5.1. Conclusion 79
5.2. Pedagogical Implications 83
5.3. Suggestions for Further Studies 83
Appendices 85
Reference 107
List of Tables
Table 3. 1 The Corpus of this Study 32
Table 3. 2 A sample of accurate words table of the corpus of the study of male and female translator 36
Table 4. 1 Frequency of categories applied to the translation of “And the Mountains Echoed 75
Abbreviations:
DTS: Descriptive Translation Studies
SL: Source Language
TL: Target Language
ST: Source Text
TT: Target Text
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
Chapter 1
1. Introduction
1.1. Overview
Every process of translation involves at least two languages and variety of messages, which can be called form and meaning. In fact, the meaning is the message which is transferred by various features and it is the task of the translator to transfer the meaning of the ST into the TT. So, depending on different factors affecting the translator’s performance and the way the message is conveyed, different translations will be produced. Translation is an interdisciplinary field of study (Snell -Hornby, 1998; Bassnet, 2002; Hatim and Mundy, 2006; Rezvani, Riazi and Sahragard, 2011) and it is in connection with many other disciplines such as gender study (e.g. studying gender differences of translators on translation quality), Psychology (considering the psychological factors and their impact on translator’s performance), linguistics (the impact and the relation of any language skills on translation both oral and written). Gender of the translator is one of the factors that may affect the product of the translator, and the accuracy of translation is an important feature in evaluating any translated text. Ghodrati (1388,2009A.D. p.143)
This research aimed to work on the differences which might exist in terms of the accuracy between the translations done by male and female translators, like gender of translator.
Gender study is one of the subfields of sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society and specifically it is the descriptive study of the effect of any andall aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. It ranges from the study of the wide variety of dialects across a given region down to the analysis between the way men and women speak to one another. Ounas (2009, p.5)
Language and gender are linked and developed through man’s participation in every day social practice. It is proved through various investigations that the languages of men and women are really different (Holmes 1995: 1). In the past, women were invisible, yet today they believe that they possess a different voice, different psychology, different experience of love, etc. and also different culture from that of men (Coates 1997, p.13). Many studies have been conducted so far, regarding the role of the gender “as a determinant of linguistic usage” (Stockwell 2002, p.16).
Consequently, women are considered as the subordinate group and men as the dominant one, and for this reason, females are doing their best in order to be heard by the society and express their abilities to males. But regarding their translations, it must be said since translation is the product of man’s language; it must have the same characteristics as that of language. So, every translation must reflect the characteristics of the language of its translator. Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146)
This paragraph focuses on the fact that men marginalized women within the history. So this research confirms this idea or there are some other reasons; women have been victimized so, they are not accurate in their translation. Therefore, men are somehow more accurate in translating literary text.
In the process of translating a text, the message of the original should be preserved in the translation and this shows the fidelity or faithfulness of the translator to the original text. Beekman and Callow (1989, p.33) believe that a faithful translation is the one “which transfers the meaning and the dynamics of the original text”; and by ‘transferring the meaning’, they mean that the translation conveys the ST information to the TT reader. According to Beekman and Callow (1989, p.34), “only as the translator correctly understands the message, can he begin to be faithful”, and it is only then that “he can translate clearly & accurately”. In fact, faithfulness and fidelity are two terms which show how much the TT reconstructs the ST. Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146)
Some translation theorists believe that the translation should be evaluated by considering its ST as “the yardstick” (Manafi Anari 2004, p.34). Manafi Anari (2004, p.41) defines accuracy as “the exactitude or precision of the meaning conveyed” and in fact it “implies conformity of translation with the original text in terms of fact or truth”. Also, he defines ‘accurate translation’ as a translation “which is the reproduction of the message of the ST” (Manafi Anari 2004, p.34). Newmark (1996, p.111) believes that in translating a text, “the accuracy relates to the SL text, either to the author’s meaning, or to the objective truth that is encompassed by the text”, etc.According to the discussion above, accuracy can be considered as one of the representations of the faithfulness in translation, i.e. showing how accurately the translator has managed to reproduce the message of the ST into the TL.
Gender affects and influences on the process of writing and translating texts between languages.Regarding the translation accuracy, Larson (1984, p.485) believes that in some cases, when the translator tries to get the meaning of the ST and convey it to the TT, s/he may make some mistakes, either in the analysis of the ST, or in the process of conveying the meaning, and a different meaning may result; then, there is a need for a careful check regarding the accuracy of the translation. According to

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