suggestions for further research
Every process of translation involves at least two languages and a variety of message, which can be called form and meaning. In fact, the meaning is the message which is transferred by various features and it is the task of the translator to transfer the meaning of the ST into the TT. So, depending on different factors affecting the translator’s performance and the way the message is conveyed, different translations will be produced. Translation is an interdisciplinary field of study (Snell -Hornby, 1998; Bassnet, 2002; Hatim and Mundy, 2006; Rezvani, Riazi and Sahragard, 2011) and it is in connection with many other disciplines such as sociology (e.g. studying gender differences of translators on translation quality), Psychology (considering the psychological factors and their impact on translator’s performance), linguistics (the impact and the relation of any language skills on translation both oral and written). Gender of the translator is one of the factors that may affect the product of the translator, and the accuracy of translation is an important feature in evaluating any translated text. Ghodrati (1388, 2009A.D. p.143)
This research aimed to work on the differences which might exist in terms of the accuracy between the translations done by male and female translators, like gender of translator.
Gender study is one of the subfield of sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society and specifically it is the descriptive study of the effect of any andall aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. It ranges from the study of the wide variety of dialects across a given region down to the analysis between the way men and women speak to one another.
Language and gender are linked and developed through man’s participation in every day social practice. It is proved through various investigations that the languages of men and women are really different (Holmes 1995, p.1). In the past, women were invisible, yet today they believe that they possess a different voice, different psychology, different experience of love, etc. and also different culture from that of men (Coates 1997, p.13). Many studies have been conducted so far, regarding the role of the gender “as a determinant of linguistic usage” (Stockwell 2002, p.16).
Consequently, women are considered as the subordinate group and men as the dominant one, and for this reason, females are doing their best in order to be heard by the society and express their abilities to males. But regarding their translations, it must be said since translation is the product of man’s language; it must have the same characteristics as that of language. So, every translation must reflect the characteristics of the language of its translator. Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146)
In the process of translating a text, the message of the original should be preserved in the translation and this shows the fidelity or faithfulness of the translator to the original text. Beekman and Callow (1989, p.33) believe that a faithful translation is the one “which transfers the meaning and the dynamics of the original text”; and by ‘transferring the meaning’, they mean that the translation conveys the ST information to the TT reader. According to Beekman and Callow (1989, p.34), “only as the translator correctly understands the message, can he begin to be faithful”, and it is only then that “he can translate clearly & accurately”. In fact, faithfulness and fidelity are two terms which show how much the TT reconstructs the ST. Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146)
Some translation theorists believe that the translation should be evaluated by considering its ST as “the yardstick” (Manafi Anari 2004, p.34). Manafi Anari (2004, p.41) defines accuracy as “the exactitude or precision of the meaning conveyed” and in fact it “implies conformity of translation with the original text in terms of fact or truth”. Also, he defines ‘accurate translation’ as a translation “which is the reproduction of the message of the ST” (Manafi Anari 2004, p.34). Newmark (1996, p.111) believes that in translating a text, “the accuracy relates to the SL text, either to the author’s meaning, or to the objective truth that isencompassed by the text”, etc. According to the discussion above, accuracy can be considered as one of the representations of the faithfulness in translation, i.e. showing how accurately the translator has managed to reproduce the message of the ST into the TL.
As it is mentioned every process of translation involves at least two languages and one message which is transferred by various features and it is the task of the translator to transfer the meaning of the ST into TT. So depending on different factors affecting the translator’s performance and the way the message is conveyed, different translation will be produced. Gender of the translator is one of the factors that may affect the product of the translator, and the accuracy of translation is an important feature in evaluating any translated text.
As Wardaugh mentioned, there are many differences between male and female languages. Such as phonological differences, suprasegmental, lexical, grammatical and etc.
According to the study that have been done based on Method A of Waddington from 70 sentences of two translations of “And the mountains echoed” novel, due to the novel “And the mountains echoed” it is concluded that the translation of male translator is different from the female one. In order to prove this claim, the researcher analyzed 200 sentences of the novel and two translations of it by a male translator and a female one. So in this analysis, the researches get access to 44 cases of addition, 122 cases of omission, 57 cases of faux sens, 23 cases of inappropriate linguistic variation, 5 cases of loss of meaning and 1 case of nonsense, and there wasn’t no contresens and unresolved extralinguistic references. The total number of inaccurate words in male translator was 252 cases. Then, in comparison with the female translator which contains, 218 cases of addition, 100 cases of omission, 68 cases of fauxsens, 51 cases of inappropriate linguistic variation, 9 cases of loss of meaning, 3 cases of contresens and 1 case of nonsense and there wasn’t any unresolved extralinguistic references. The total number of accurate words in female translator was 450 cases. So, it is concluded that the more the number of these 8 categories, maybe somehow the less accurate is the translation. Then, in this research on the novel of “And the mountains echoed” it seems that the male translator translate differently and somehow more accurate than the female one.
Based on these factors of Waddington model of accuracy, the researcher analyzed the data, which are about 200 sentences of the novel “And the mountains echoed” and two translation of it from male and female translation.
So in this research, the researcher is going to make it clear if there is any difference in male and female translation accuracy according to Wadington Model A, that introduces 3 groups of mistakes which may exist in a translation. The first group of mistakes which consider the understanding of the ST message is related to the accuracy of the translation. It contains inappropriate rendering affecting the understanding of the source text and he divides them into eight categories: contresens, fauxsens, nonsense, addition, omission, unresolved extralinguistic references, loss of meaning, and inappropriate linguistic variation.
The researcher analyzed 200 sentences of 3 chapters of “And the Mountains Echoed”.After analyzing the data, the researcher found the following results:
The first strategy is contresens, in male translation there is not any contresens, but in female translation 3 words and phrases are contresens, that shows female translators in this case tend to change the meaning more than male translators.
The second strategy is fauxsens, in male translation there are 57 cases of it and in the female translation there are 68 cases, which shows female translators translate more falsely than the male translator and it shows less accurate translation in female version.
The third strategy is nonsense, that the number of this one is equal in both male and female translator.
The forth strategy is addition, in male translation there are 44 cases of addition but in the female one there are 218 cases of it that shows that the female translator is less accurate than the male one.
The other strategy is omission, in male translation, the researcher found 122 cases of omitting the word that exist in ST but they don’t translate to the TT. The number of omission in the female translation is 100 cases which show the female translator omit less words of the ST in the TT.
There aren’t any unresolved extralinguistic references in both male translation and the female one.
The seventh strategy is loss of meaning, in male translation there are 5 cases but in the female one there are 9 cases, it means that the female translator doesn’t keep the layers of meaning in the St and it occurs more than the male translator.
The last strategy is inappropriate linguistic variation, in the male translation there are 23 cases of it but in the female
suggestions for further research