پایان نامه ارشد رایگان درمورد Translation، semantic

examining potential sex differences in second language ability in college students matched for the age of acquisition of the second language, the number of classes taken, working memory capacity, and English Reading Comprehension. The results showed that females performed significantly better than males in second language reading comprehension when they are matched on all these variables, suggesting that females have a stronger module for second language processing than do males.
Hannah and Murachver (1999) in their article “Gender and Conversational Style as Predictors of Conversational Behavior” state that because gender and speech style co-vary, effects that have been attributed to speakers’ gender-based status might in fact be consequences of how people respond to particular styles of speech. To examine the relative impact of gender and speech style on conversant’ speech behavior, female and male confederates were trained to employ a facilitative or a non-facilitative style of speech in interactions with young adults. Analyses of participants’ conversations with confederates showed that confederate speech style, rather than confederate gender, was a more reliable predictor of participants’ speech behavior. In conjunction with analyses of participant accommodation to confederate speech, the results revealed subtle differences in how women and men responded to the behavior of confederates.
2.3. Translation
Translation is a process conducted in language, a process of changing a text in one language into another language. The change consists of some aspects, such as phonetic, grammatical, and semantic. Therefore, a translator must use the theory of language as a footing or the principle that supports him/her.
Based on Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, translation is “the process of changing something that is written or spoken into another language.”
In globalization era, translation is very useful and needed by human. By translation, communication between human beings in various parts of the world can be done effectively. Science and technology which is evolving from many countries may be accessed easily. Transfer of science, culture, and other social activities mostly is done through translation. Gunawan (2011, p. 1)
Catford stressed the notion of translation as the process of substituting a text from one language into another language. Nida and Taber state that the translation should be the closest natural equivalent of source language, both in the meaning and the style of receptor language.
Newmark defines translation as “rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.” According to Larson, “translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language”. Thus, they agree that something which is transferred in a translation is meaning, not form. Besides that, there should be naturalness in the meaning as the rules of receptor language. Then Machali states that the translation must be able to communicate or to act as “the bridges of meaning” between the manufacturer of the source text and receptor text reader. Translation is an act of communication that conveys messages from authors to readers. Wills argues that the purpose of translation is to get the optimal equivalent and there must be semantic and pragmatic understanding in receptor language text. Gunawan(2011, p. 12)
Hatim and Mason propose the definition of translation which is suitable to literary translation. They say that translation is looked upon as “an act of communication which attempts to relay, across cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for different purposes and different readers/ hearers)”. In this case, a translation is receiver the message of source language then he acts as sender to receptor language. In other words, a translator has two task, first he must be a good receiver, That is willing understand what the author mean, secondly he acts as sender in which he must be able to render the sense what he had got accurately to readers. Gunawan(2011, p. 14)
Translation can be defined as an art of reproduction which transfers themeaning of a text from one language to another (Simon 1996: 12). Goddard (1999: 91, cited in Simon 1996: 12) claims that translator is described as “a servant, an invisible hand” who mechanically transforms the words of one language into those of another. According to Barbara Godard (1995a: 73, cited in Simon 1996: 23) translation should not be considered as a simple process of transferring the meaning from one language into another, but it is a continuation of the process creating meaning done in the network of texts and social discourses. The feminist translator believes that she actively contributes in the process of creating the meaning of the text (Simon 1996: 29).
A definition which is not confined to the mere transference of meaning is furnished by Nida and Taber (1969: 12) who postulate translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. (Emphasis is mine). Bell (1991: 5-6) seems to have pursued the same line of emphasis on meaning and style in his translation of the definition given by the French theorist, Dubois (1974):
Translation is the expression in another language (or the target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences.
Translation is “an incredibly broad notion which can be understood in many different ways” (Shuttleworth & Cowie 1997, p.181). Hatim and Munday (2004, p.3) believe that translation is a phenomenon which has a great effect on everyday life. According to Gutt (1991, p.122, cited in Hatim & Munday2004, p.62), translation can be divided into two types: direct and indirect. As he defines, indirect translation is the one in which the translator, with no constraints, is able to expand, paraphrase, or summarize; while, in direct translation, the translator should just concentrate on contents of the source text which are clearly expressed. Based on the definition above, in direct translation, the translator tries to create a translation faithful to the original text; also, according to Wilson and Sperber (1988, p.137, cited in Hatim & Munday 2004, p.179), a faithful translation is the one whose translator has attempted to create a translation similar to the source text “closely enough in relevant aspects”.
Furthermore, Sumardiono defines translation with orientation approach that states “Translation is a process of transferring message from one language to another by considering the aspects of accuracy and acceptability. Accuracy tends to the source language; while acceptability tends to the target language.” It means there are two orientations that the translator considers, namely: source language oriented by focusing the accuracy of meaning and receptor language oriented by focusing the acceptability of a translation. Gunawan (2011, p. 14).
Suryawinata and Haiyanto states that the translation of novel must be focused on the rendition of the wholly story, it is not the rendition of sentence for sentence. It aims to make the translation which is enjoyable to read and make the reader keep going on to read the next page. Meanwhile, Hoed states that a translator of novel has two task, first he must be a good receiver, that is willing understand what the author mean, secondly he acts as sender in which he must be able to render the sense what he had got accurately to readers. Hendarto cited in Ganesha says that a translator of novel should attempt to produce a translation that makes receptor language readers feel the same experience with source language readers. Similarly, Sayogie says that the good novel translation occurs when the impression of receptor language readers is same with the impression of source language readers. Gunawan(2011, p. 34)
Shafiee-Sabet and Rabeie (2011) in their article “The Effect of the Translator’s Gender Ideology on Translating Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights” examine the effect of gender ideology of the translators on two Persian translations of Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights. The findings reveal that although both translations have many similar features in respect to some maxims of translation, in both of them gender ideology of the translator is a key figure in translating the gender related items/parts of the source text, as each translator uses his/her own gender ideology in the interpretation and transformation of the SL text into TL.
Tavoosi (2008) in his article “Gender in translation” deals with the differences between the translations into Persian done by male and female translators on the basis of sentence length, lexical choice and the number of parentheses. To investigate the differences, an English text on the topic of women’s studies was chosen and fourteen male and fourteen female semi-professional translators were asked to translate the text into Persian. Then the number of sentences, the average number of total tokens and consequently the average sentence length in each translation was shown in separate tables according to the unit of analysis and the translators’ gender. As to the lexical choice, three words and three phrases which expected to reveal the differences between male and female translator’s writings were chosen and the translators’ choices were shown in separate tables according to the word/phrase under study and the translators’ gender.

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