پایان نامه ارشد رایگان درمورد tradition، interest

are structurally different.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304). The female translator used inappropriate linguistic variation for translating (he labored from dawn to sundown) but in male translation this factor isn’t seen. As Wardaugh said men and women are different in their speech styles and this fact is reflected in their styles of translating and finding equivalences for the source text.
Sample 2.His hands were always callused, and they often bled, and every night sleep stole him away no sooner than his cheek met the pillow.(4)
مترجم مرد: دستهایش همیشه پینه بسته و خونی بود و هر شب همینکه سر به بالین می گذاشت، خوابش می برد. (10)
Omission: often / stole away
Inappropriate Linguistic Variation: sleep stole him away:
خوابش می برد. (Creating an inappropriate tone)
مترجم زن: دستانش همیشه پینه بسته و خون آلود بود و هر شب،‌قبل از این که سرش به بالش برسد، خواب چشمانش را می ربود. (10)
Fauxsens: no sooner:
قبل از اینکه
چشمانشAddition :
Discussion of Sample 2.
Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women are different, womenusing certain patterns of surprise and politeness that men use them less Wardaugh (2006, p.321).So, Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a question it means that in rising intonation rather than the falling intonation pattern which is used in making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. Because of this reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g., ‘They caught the robber last week, didn’t they?’
So in this example, the male translator omitted two words (often, stole away) that one of them is an adverb and the other is a verb. By omitting functional words like them the structure of a sentence will be changed and become different from the source sentence. But woman translator didn’t make such a change that shows one of the differences that Wardaugh mentioned about the different structures that men and women used in their language.
And also the male translator used an inappropriate style in translating the sentence (sleep stole him away) and this sentence is literally in the source text but this aspect didn’t transfer to the target text. Woman translator translated this sentence without any changes and in an appropriate style which is literal. As Wardaugh said men and women are different in the style of their languages that this fact is shown in their style of translations.Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304).
Another factor in the female translator was that the female one chose different equivalent for the phrase (no sooner) which is not exactly the same meaning as the source phrase and also she added a word (cheshmanash) to the translation of (sleep stole him away) that in male translation none of these changes are seen. So, as Wardaugh mentioned men and women are morphologically different. It means that in choosing vocabularies in their language they are different and also in their translations. In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. In a paper which, although it is largely intuitive, anecdotal, and personal in nature, is nevertheless challenging and interesting, Lakoff, claims that women use more color words like mauve, beige and adjectives like adorable, charming, but most men do not use such color words in detail and such adjectives. It claims that women have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, and fantastic. Distinctions are made in the vocabulary choice used to describe men and women. Consequently, there is such neutral words and they can be used as much as possible, as in describing occupations e.g., chairperson, letter carrier, salesclerk, and actor (as in ‘She’s an actor’).
Sample 3.Yes, there was a river, but the villagers had to endure a half-day walk to reach it, and even then its waters flowed muddy all year round. Now, after ten years of drought, the river too ran shallow(4).
مترجم مرد: بله، رودخانه ای هم بود، اما اهالی ده باید نصف روز راه می رفتند تا به آن برسند، گو اینکه آب جاری در آن تمام سال گل آلود بود. حالا پس از ده سال خشکسالی، آب رودخانه هم خیلی کم شده بود.(10)
Omission: endure
مترجم زن: ناگفته نماند رودخانه ای هم آن حوالی جاری بود،‌ اما روستائیان مجبور بودند به هر جان کندنی شده برای رسیدن به همان آب باریکه ی گل آلود نصف روز زیر تیغ آفتاب راه بروند. حالا هم که بعد از ده سال خشکسالی همان رود گل آلود هم کم آب شده و رو به خشکیدن گذاشته بود.(10)
Addition:
زیر تیغ آفتاب / آب باریکه / جاری / آن حوالی / رو به خشکیدن گذاشته بود
Omission: all year round
Inappropriate linguistic variation: to endure:
به هر جان کندنی شده (creating a colloquial tone)
Discussion of Sample 3.
The male translator omitted a verb (endure) but the female translator omitted a phrase (All year round) based on Wardaugh they are grammatically different. As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements. The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
The female translator added a sentence (roo be khoshkidan gozashte bood) and an adjective (jari) and three phrases that none of them are seen in male translator. As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Distinctions are made in the vocabulary choice used to describe men and women.Consequently, we can understand why there is a frequent insistence that neutralwords be used as much as possible, as in describing occupations e.g., chairperson,letter carrier, salesclerk, and actor (as in ‘She’s an actor’).
The female translators choose a different equivalent for a verb “to endure” to the meaning of “be har jankandani shode” and creating a colloquial tone that it hasn’t seen in female translation. As Wardaugh said men and women are different in their speech styles and this fact is reflected in their styles of translating and finding equivalences for the source text.
Sample 4. When He learned to walk, he took such Delight in it that he did it all day while he was awake, and then, troublingly, even at night in his sleep. He would sleepwalk out of the family’s mud House and wander off into the moonlit darkness.(4)
همینکه به راه رفتن افتاد، چنان از آن لذت می برد که تمام روز تا بیدار بود، می دوید و بعد، به طرزی نگران کننده، حتی شبها که خوابیده بود، راه می رفت و از خانه ی گلی خانواده بیرون می رفت و در تاریکی مهتابی شب می پلکید.(11)
Omission: learned
Faux sens:
/می دویدWander off :
می پلکیدwalk:
هنگامی که پاهایش به راه رفتن باز شد، آنقدر ذوق زده شده بود

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