منابع پایان نامه با موضوع Translation

accuracy of the translation.
Also, the Institute of Linguistics (IOL) defines accuracy as: “the correct transfer of information and evidence of complete comprehension” (Munday 2001: 30). Just as Munday (2001: 30) states “Accuracy is in some ways the modern linguistic equivalent of ‘faithfulness’, ‘spirit’, and ‘truth’”.
Accuracy in translation refers to “the exactitude or precision of the meaning conveyed” and in fact it “implies conformity of translation with the original text in terms of fact or truth” (Manafi Anari 2004:41, vol. 1, no. 4). “An ‘accurate’ translation is that the reproduction of the message of the ST” (Manafi Anari 2004: 34, vol. 2, no.5).
In the process of translating a text, the message of the original should be preserved in the translation and this shows the fidelity or faithfulness of the translator to the message of original text. A definition of fidelity deals with the meaning of the original text, because in every translation the meaning of the original text should be maintained, but it cannot be claimed about maintaining the linguistic form of the original; since maintaining the linguistic form of the original in translation sometimes leads to creating a translation with a wrong or opaque meaning (Beekman and Callow 1989: 33). Beekman and Callow (1989: 33) are of the opinion that: “A translation which transfers the meaning and the dynamics of the original text is to be regarded as a faithful translation”. They describe that in this definition the expression ‘transfers the meaning’ indicates that the translation reveals to the readers/hearers the information which the original text reveals to its readers/hearers. According to Beekman and Callow (1989: 34), “only as the translator correctly understands the message, can he begin to be faithful”, and it is only then that “he can translate clearly and accurately”. In fact, faithfulness and fidelity are two terms which show how much the TT reconstructs the ST. Thus, the message of the original must be preserved in the translation and this is faithfulness/fidelity of the translator to the original text (Ghodrati, 1388: 34).
Traditionally, the concept of fidelity has been considered as an important “yardstick for measuring translation quality”; however, today it is substituted with notions such as equivalence (Shuttleworth & Cowie, 1997: 57). According to Shuttleworth and Cowie (1997: 57), in the past, a faithful translation was a translation “which bears a strong resemblance to its ST, usually in terms of either its LITERAL adherence to source meaning or its successful communication of the ‘spirit’ of the original”; thus, at that time, faithfulness and fidelity have been two terms frequently applied by writers on translation of Bible. contemporary writers have applied the terms in several different ways: for instance, Nida and Taber (1969/1982: 201, cited in Shuttleworth & Cowie 1997: 57) believe that “faithfulness is a property of a text which displays DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE, a faithful translation is one which ‘evokes in a receptor essentially the same response as that displayed by the receptors of the original message
In the process of translating a text, the message of the original should be preserved in the translation and this shows the fidelity or faithfulness of the translator to the message of original text. A definition of fidelity deals with the meaning of the original text, because in every translation the meaning of the original text should be maintained, but it cannot be claimed about maintaining the linguistic form of the original; since maintaining the linguistic form of the original in translation sometimes leads to creating a translation with a wrong or opaque meaning (Beekman and Callow 1989, p.33). Beekman and Callow (1989, p.33) are of the opinion that: “A translation which transfers the meaning and the dynamics of the original text is to be regarded as a faithful translation”. They describe that in this definition the expression ‘transfers the meaning’ indicates that the translation reveals to the readers/hearers the information which the original text reveals to its readers/hearers. According to Beekman and Callow (1989, p.34), “only as the translator correctly understands the message, can he begin to be faithful”, and it is only then that “he can translate clearly and accurately”. In fact, faithfulness and fidelity are two terms which show how much the TT reconstructs the ST. Thus, the message of the original must be preserved in the translation and this is faithfulness/fidelity of the translator to the original text (Ghodrati 1388, p.34).
Consequently, according to the discussion above, the term ‘translation accuracy’ refers to the appropriate renderings of translator’s understanding of the message of the ST and that how accurately (i.e. how faithfully) the translator has managed to translate a text from one language into another.
Also, Waddington (2001: 313) has proposed a translation quality assessment method based on Hurtado’s (1995) model: Waddington’s “Method A” introduces three groups of mistakes which may exist in a translation. According to the several definitions for the term accuracy represented so far, it can be concluded that in Waddington’s Method A, the first group of the mistakes, which consider the understanding of the ST message, is related to the accuracy of the translation; it contains inappropriate renderings affecting the understanding of the source text and he divides them into eight categories: contresens, faux sens, nonsense, addition, omission, unresolved extralinguistic references, loss of meaning, and inappropriate linguistic variation (register, style, dialect, etc.).
Moghaddas (2013) in his article “The Effect of Gender in Translation Accuracy of Iranian EnglishTranslators” states that The act of translation destroys language walls, cultivates associative thinking and illuminates the assertions, gestures and utterances of other nations. In recentyears, a considerable amount of academic literature has focused on the concept of gender in translation (e.g. Von Flotow 2001, Simon 1996, and Chamberlain 1988). As Chamberlain(1998) states: “the issues relating to gender in the practice of translation are myriad according to the type of text, the language, cultural practices and countless other factors”. The present study concentrates on the role of translator’s gender in the translation accuracy and tries to investigate whether there is a major difference in the translations done by the male and female translators or not. Regarding the issue, 6 English novels and their equivalent translations were used. The translation unit to analyze was a simple complete sentence. Each translation was compared with the target text sentence by sentence and the inappropriate translations which were influential and effective on the target text understanding and translation accuracy were studied. The total number of the inappropriate translations in each group for male and female translators were counted and surveyed. The observations after data analysis and statistical calculations rejected the hypothesis referring the difference in the translations of male and female’s translators in translation accuracy.
Ghodrati (2009) in his article “Gender and translation accuracy” wants to identify the role of the gender of the translator on the accuracy of the translation, and to determine whether there is any difference between the translations done by female and male translators in terms of translation accuracy. Two English novels and two translations for each, one done by a female and the other by a male translator, were selected.
The total numbers of the observed inappropriate renderings of each group of the female and male translators were counted. Having analyzed the data and having applied some statistical analyses, the researcher discovered that the answer to the research question was negative and the null hypothesis of the research was supported.
Bouali (2009, p.75-85) in her article “Naturalness and accuracy in English translation of Hafiz” study two research questions, the first one was the degree of accuracy in English translations of Hafiz by native speakers of English and Persian and the second one was, Is it possible to achieve both naturalness and accuracy in poetry translation? The researcher is going to answer whether there is any difference between an English translation of Hafiz by a native speaker of Persian “Pazargadi” and a native speaker of English ‘Clarke” in terms of accuracy. The methodology which is applied was descriptive and the approach of the study was a comparative one. The researcher concluded that if a native translator and a non- native one cooperate with each other in literary texts especially in poetry translation might lead to a better translation. The second question answered that Iranian translators translate more accurately, whereas English translator translate more naturally.
CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology
Chapter 3
3. Methodology
3.1. Research Method and Approaches
This research is an attempt to study the effect of translator’s gender on accuracy of “And the Mountains Echoed” by Khaled Hosseini of two translators a male by the name of “Mehdi Ghebrayi” and a female one “Nastaran Zahiri”. In order to accomplish this objective a comparative qualitative study has been conducted to explore the effect of translator’s gender on translating accuracy of these two translations of

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