is not translated in the target text.
Unresolved Extra linguistic References: It occurs when there is not an appropriate extra linguistic reference in the translation; extra linguistic references are the references such as footnotes, prefaces, intertextual additions, endnotes, etc. which help the reader to understand the meaning and they are some additional information in the translation.
Loss of Meaning: It occurs when the meaning of the source text is not completely transferred to the TT and in the process of translation some part of the meaning is lost.
Inappropriate Linguistic Variation: It occurs when there is a change of register, style, dialect, etc. in the process of translation from source text into target text.
In this study, the researcher prepared a table based on Waddington’s “Method A”. Here, it should be mentioned that only the first method refers to accuracy and the researcher assessed the accuracy of the translations according to this column and she just dealt with the eight items of this column of the table:
Table 3.2: A sample of accurate words table of the corpus of the study of male and female translator
Inappropriate renderings affecting the understanding of the ST ( i.e. Affecting the Translation Accuracy of the Male and female Translator of And the Mountains Echoed)
Unresolved extralinguistic reference
Loss of meaning
Inappropriate linguistic variation
In this table 8 factors of Waddington model are shown in horizontal way. At the below of each factor, the related items of each translation are written that finally shows the differences between two translations.
3.4. Restatement of Research Questions
Through this research some questions will be followed in comparison between two translations of “And the Mountains Echoed” novel which are hoped to be answered through this research.
1. How does translator’s gender affect the accuracy of translation in the novel “And the Mountains Echoed”?
2. Is male translator more author-oriented than female in the novel “And the Mountains Echoed”?
3. Are 8 factors of Waddington model of accuracy seen in male translator more than female one?
Instrumentation:These questions will be answered and discussed according to 8 factors of Waddington Model Aof accuracy in translation which are contresens, faux sens, nonsense, addition, omission, unresolved extralinguistic references, loss of meaning, and inappropriate linguistic variation.As this model shows the number of these factors in any translation is a criteria of accuracy in that translationand also according to Wardaugh, men and women are linguistically different. So, with this idea and the use of Waddington model of accuracy these questions will be answered and the researcher will be able to show the differences between male and female translation in accuracy and make it clear whether there is any differences in the styles of male and female translators.
To achieve the purpose of the study the researcher followed a step-by-step procedure as follows:
First, the original novel was read thoroughly in order to identify accurate words. Based on the framework of the study from six chapters of novel some sentences were selected which ended up to 500 sentences (appendix).
Then, two versions of translation of the novel from a male translator and a female one were studied thoroughly; the corresponding equivalents of the original accurate words were extracted.
In the third step, accurate words and their corresponding equivalents from male translator and female one were compared and contrasted to elicit the categories applied for their translation according to the model proposed by Waddington (2001)
Fourth, a table of specifications was provided for the novel that depicted the accurate words and the category of accuracy used for their translation.
Finally, the overall frequencies of strategies were elicited to determine the most and least frequently used category in each one.
The present study is a corpus-based research, which benefits a descriptive approach to the comparison of categorization applied to translation of accurate words of “And the Mountains Echoed” by a male and a female translator and this research is designed according to APA format.
This research is comprised of 5 chapters. Chapter 1 was an introduction which explains about the whole research and also the problem of research and the significance of it was explained. In the first chapter the key terms were defined and the research questions were raised. In chapter 2 all the works done in the area of translation and sociolinguistics were raised. Chapter 3 was the one in which the theory of research was explained. In this chapter the ideas of Wardaugh about male and female linguistic differences were discussed and also the Model A of Waddington about the translation accuracy were discussed.In chapter 4 the data was analyzed which chosen from the two translation was of the novel “And the Mountains Echoed” by a male and a female translator. In chapter 5, the conclusion of the research and the results of data analysis were discussed.
Data Analysis, Results and Discussion
4. Data Analysis, Results and Discussion
The present chapter represents the findings and data analysis of the comparison between two different translations of “And the Mountains Echoed”, by a male and a female translators to find out what are the dominant and the least frequent strategies of translating accurate words of the aforementioned novel in two translations and to compare the frequency of the categories used by both translators.
For this purpose, three chapters of the above-mentioned novel, which held 200 accurate words have been extracted by the researcher, compared and contrasted with their male and female Persian translations.
Following the content analysis, the frequency of the applied categories for accurate words in translating this novel has been calculated in separate for each category. Then, considering all categories employed in the book, the frequency and percentage for each category were calculated and compared in order to obtain the most and least common categories used in the corpus of the study.
4.2. Analysis of Samples
In the process of data analysis, the extracted accurate words from four chapters and their corresponding equivalents in female and male translator provided the evidences that the researcher needs for interpreting the findings of her investigation.
In this part the researcher is going to analyze the data based on the Method A of Waddington model of accuracy in translation which are contresens, faux sens, nonsense, addition, omission, unresolved extra linguistic references, loss of meaning, and inappropriate linguistic variation and Wardaugh and Lakoff about the differences between male and female translators.
Sample 1.Every day, he labored from dawn to sundown, plowing his field and turning the soil and tending to his meager pistachio trees. (2)
مترجم مرد: هر روز از بام تا شام مزرعه اش را شخم می زد و خاک را زیر و رو می کرد و به درخت های پسته ی کم بارش می رسید.(9)
Faux sens: sundown:
مترجم زن: هر روز خدا، از خروسخوان صبح تا غروب آفتاب، جان می کند. خاک مزرعه اش را شخم می زد و زیرورو می کرد و به درخت های پسته ی بی باروبرش می رسید.(9)
خروسخوان / خدا
Inappropriate linguistic Variation: he labored from dawn to sundown:
از خروسخوان صبح تا غروب آفتاب، جان می کند.(Creating a colloquial tone)
Discussion of Sample 1.
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men. In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g, “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
In this case the male translator in his translation omitted a verb (labored) and it changes the structure of the sentence of the source language but woman translator doesn’t omit any word.
And also the male translator choose a different word for translating the word (sundown) which is faux sense according to Waddington. But the female translator chooses another equivalent for translating it. This difference in choosing the equivalence of the word refers to their differences in choosing and using different vocabularies that shows men and women are morphologically different.
The female translator added two words (khroskhan and khoda) in her translation that changes the structure of the source text. But male translator didn’t add any words in his translation. So, it refers to Wardaugh that men and women are grammatically and morphologically different because these two translations of one sentence
is not translated in the target text.