منابع پایان نامه با موضوع Translation، tradition، semantic

o Method A of Waddington, the researcher decides to study if the gender of translator has any impression on accuracy in translating literary text and which one translate more accurate the male translator or female one.
1.2. Statement of the Problem:
Wordhaugh by distinguishing between “biological sex” and “socio-cultural gender” considers gender in language issue more cultural and context-oriented phenomenon (Wordhaugh, 2006, p.315-316). However, he considered both natural and grammatical gender system in languages (Ibid, p.320). ). In addition he mentioned the phonological differences, suprasegmental, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and the communication (Ibid, p.318-320).
The problem which is dealt with here is about studying if the gender of translator has anyimpression on accuracy in translating literary text according to whatever Wardaugh said about linguistically gender differences, and which one translated more accurate the male translator or the female one based on the first model of Method A of Waddington that is “Inappropriate renderings which affect the understanding of the ST”.As an example there is such a sentence with two translations:
Sample1. Every day, he labored from dawn to sundown, plowing his field and turning the soil and tending to his meager pistachio trees. (p.2)
مترجم مرد: هر روز از بام تا شام مزرعه اش را شخم می زد و خاک را زیر و رو می کرد و به درخت های پسته ی کم بارش می رسید.) ص9)
Omission: Labored
Faux sens: sundown:شام
مترجم زن: هر روز خدا،‌ از خروسخوان صبح تا غروب آفتاب، جان می کند. خاک مزرعه اش را شخم می زد و زیرورو می کرد و به درخت های پسته ی بی باروبرش می رسید.) ص9)
Addition:
خروسخوان / خدا
Inappropriate linguistic Variation: he labored from dawn to sundown:
از خروسخوان صبح تا غروب آفتاب، جان می کند.
(Creating a colloquial tone)
Discussion of Sample 1.
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than menWardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g, “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
And also the male translator chose a different word for translating the word (sundown) which is faux sense according to Waddington. But the female translator chooses another equivalent for translating it. This difference refers to their differences in choosing and using different vocabularies that shows men and women are morphologically different.
The female translator added two words (khroskhan and khoda) in her translation that changes the structure of the source text. But male translator didn’t add any words in his translation. So, it refers to Wardaugh that men and women are grammatically and morphologically different because these two translations of one sentence are structurally different.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304). The female translator used inappropriate linguistic variation for translating (he labored from dawn to sundown) but in male translation this factor isn’t seen. As Wardaugh said men and women are different in their speech styles and this fact is reflected in their styles of translating and finding equivalences for the source text.
1.3. Purpose of the Study:
Because of the importance of the process of translation on man’s life and on her/ his activities in today’s societies, it is necessary to know the significant various factors affecting it that one of these factors is gender of the translator so, the aim of this study was to identify the role of the gender of the translator on the accuracy of the translation, and to determine whether there is any difference between the translations done by female and male translators in terms of translation accuracy. One English novel and two translations of it, one done by a female and the other by a male translator, are selected. Each translation was compared with its source text, sentence by sentence, and based on some certain categories, their inappropriate renderings affecting the understanding of the ST, and in fact affecting the translation accuracy, are extracted. By analyzing the data and applying some statistical analysis, the total numbers of the observed inappropriate renderings of each group of the female and male translators are counted. So the researcher aims to study the effect of translator’s gender on accuracy in translating the novel “And the Mountains Echoed” by Khaled Hosseiniand and two translators by Mehdi Ghebrayi and Nastaran Zahiri that these translators have the same culture and just their difference is their sex and the purpose of this research is just to know the effect of their gender on their translation.
1.4. Statement of Research Questions:
Through this research some questions will be followed in comparison between two translations of the novel “And the Mountains Echoed” which are hoped to be answered through this research.
1. How does translator’s gender affect the accuracy of translation in the work “And the Mountains Echoed” novel?
2. Is male translator more author-oriented than female in “And the Mountains Echoed” novel?
3. Are 8 factors of Waddington model of accuracy seen in male translator more than female one?
1.5. Significance of the Study:
Newmark (1988, p.3) also calls 20th century “the age of translation” or “reproduction”. Translation is considered as an essential factor in the development of different societies all over the world. The concept of translation, however, is not just the mechanical act of transferring meaning from one language into another, rather as Benjamin asserts, it is the act of “re-creation.” Newmark (1988, p.82).
Over the past several decades and after the women’s movement, gender issues got involved in the language issues; meanwhile the translation studies developed more and more (von Flotow 1997, p.1). Regarding the translation, it can be assumed that since translation is the product of the language of the human being, it might have the same characteristics as those of language. So, every translation might reflect the characteristics of the language of its translator.
According to Von Flotow (1997, p.5), “gender refers to the sociocultural construction of both sexes”. During 1960s-1970s, feminist thinkers discussed socialized difference between women and men and the cultural and political powerlessness of these two genders (von Flotow 1997, p.5). About the concept of gender, Sherry Simon (1996, p.5) believes that “gender is an element of identity and experience which, like other cultural identities, takes form through social consciousness”. By reviewing the history of translation, we can discover that always there have been “well-known debates over how best to be faithful”; then, it is not astonishing “that fidelity in translation has been consistently defined in terms of gender and sexuality” (Chamberlain, cited in Baker 1998, p.93).
So the researcher of this study is going to show whether there is any differences between male and female translations or not. So, this study will be useful to the writer and the readers. Based on considering the difficulty of translating literary text, the researcher is going to study the effect of translator’s gender and difference between male and female one on accuracy in translating this novel “And the Mountains Echoed”. It can be also a contribution in the development of translation theory and gives the information to the translators in translating literary text.
And also, it is showed that in addition to different factors on translation quality, the gender of translator is one of these factors that affect the product of the translator. So, by considering different studies on the influence of gender on different matters such as literal, scientific and

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