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Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g, “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306). So, in this case the male translator omitted “a few” and this factor didn’t exist in female translation.
In female translation there are addition and faux sense which are not existed in male translation. The male translator added “tahala” to the target text while there isn’t any equivalence for this word in the source text. “Certainly” was translated falsely again in the female translation and this factor wasn’t seen in the male translation.As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304). So, in the female translation “on jobs” translated inappropriately and the translator gave it a colloquial tone while in the female translation it translated correctly.
Sample 17.At intersections, traffic policemen in ill-fitting uniforms blew their whistles and made authoritative gestures that no one seemed to heed.(15)
سر چهارراه ها پلیس های راهنمایی با لباس های نامناسب سوت می زدند و اشاره های آمرانه می کردند، اما کسی ظاهرا به آن ها توجه نداشت.(45)
Fauxsens: ill-fitting:
نامناسب
پلیس هایی با اونیفرم های گل و گشاد سر هر چهار راهی ایستاده بودند، در سوت هایشان می دمیدند و با اقتدار تمام ادا و اصول درمی آوردند، هرچند انگار کسی هم بهشان توجهی نمی کرد.(49)
Omission: traffic
Addition:
ایستاده بودند / تمام
Discussion of Sample 17.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)so, the male translator translated “ill-fitting” falsely and didn’t transfer the exact meaning of this word and he didn’t enough pay attention to the different layers of the meaning of this word. The female translator added “istade boodand” and “tamam” to make the translation more fluent.
The female translator omits “traffic” while there isn’t any omission in the male translation. As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men. In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g., “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
Sample 18. “I just wish you didn’t have to leave all the time.” “Me too, son.Me too. But I’m not leaving until tomorrow. I’ll be home later in the evening.” (60)
” کاش لازم نبود این همه زیاد از پیش ما بروی.”
” کاش، پسر. من هم همین آرزو را دارم. اما فردا می روم. کمی از شب گذشته می آیم خانه.” (290)
Omission: just
Fauxsens: all the time:
این همه زیاد
” آرزوی من فقط این است که کاشکی مجبور نبودی همیشه از ما دور باشی.”
” آرزوی من هم همین است، پسرم. آرزوی من هم. اما من که فردا می خواهم بروم. امروز عصر کلا خانه هستم.”(296)
Addition:
کاشکی
Fauxsens: leave:
دور باشی
Discussion of Sample 18.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
In this example both of the translators had false translation it means that they translate a word or a phrase in a different meaning. For the male translator the phrase “all the time” translated falsely but for the female one the verb “leave” is translated falsely. Another factor which is seen in the female translation but not in the male translation is addition that female translator added “kashki”.
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g., “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306). So, in this case the male translator omitted “just” and according to Waddington it is called omission.
Sample 19.Kabul has its own problems. It can’t help them. So if I don’t, no one else will. Then these people would suffer.” “I know that,” Adel muttered.(62)
کابل مشکلات خودش را دارد. نمی تواند بهشان کمک کند. پس اگر من نکنم، دیگرکسی نمی کند. آن وقت این مردم می افتند توی گرفتاری.” عادل زیر لب گفت:‌ ” می دانم.” (297)
دولت هم در کابل مشکلات خودش را دارد. از دستش برنمی آید کمکی به مردم این جا بکند. پس اگر من کمکی به این ها نکنم، هیچ کس دیگری هم آستین بالا نمی زند. آن وقت، فقط این مردمند که زجر می کشند.” عادل زیر لب گفت:‌ ” خودم می دانم.”(304)
Addition:
دولت / این جا / خودم
Inappropriate linguistic variation: no one else will:
هیچ کس دیگری هم آستین بالا نمی زند
Discussion of Sample 19.
In male translation, there is nothing to make it less accurate and it’s a completely writer-based translation.The female translator added “dolat”, “inja” and “khodam” while there isn’t any addition in the male translation.As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Since most of us realize that it is

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