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women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g, “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304). The male translator translate “dirty” and “fetching” in an inappropriate way while the female translator didn’t translate any word or phrase inappropriately.
Sample 10. Thus the care had fallen on Abdullah, but he didn’t mind at all. He did it gladly. He loved the fact that he was the one to help with her first step, to gasp at her first uttered word (13)
بنابراین مراقبت از خواهر به گردن عبدالله افتاد، اما او با جان و دل این کار را می کرد. از این نکته خوشش می آمد که پیش از همه به داداش می رسد و با ادای اولین کلمه اش انگشت به دهان می ماند.(42)
Omission: but he didn’t mind at all
Fauxsens: he was the one to help with her first step, to gasp at her first uttered word:
پیش از همه به داداش می رسد و با ادای اولین کلمه اش انگشت به دهان می ماند.
پس مراقبت از پری روی دوش عبدالله افتاده بود،‌اما عبدالله عین خیالش نبود و با دل و جان پری را تر و خشک می کرد. وقتی می دید پری با کمک او اولین قدمش را برداشته و اولین کلماتش را به زبان آورده، شادمانی و عشق تمام وجودش را فرا می گرفت.(45)
Addition:
پری را تر و خشک می کرد/ تمام وجودش / عشق
Discussion of Sample 10.
In male translation, a phrase “but he didn’t mind at all” omitted and there isn’t any omission in the female one.As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g, “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
This sentence “he was the one to help with her first step, to gasp at her first uttered word” is translated falsely in male translation which is called faux sense based on Waddington and the researcher couldn’t find such a thing in female translation. But the female translator added some words and phrases that are “pari ra tar o khoshk mikard”, “tamame vojoodash” and “eshgh” which are addition in the target text and there isn’t any word or phrases for them in source text or English.
Sample 11. Other times, he made up stories. He made them up on the spot, his tales unmasking a capacity for imagination and dream that always surprised Abdullah.(14)
بعضی وقت ها هم خودش قصه هایی سر هم می کرد. آنها را در جا می ساخت و قصه هایش چنان برخوردار از تخیل و رویا بود که عبدالله را به تعجب می انداخت.(42)
Fauxsens: unmasking:
برخوردار بودن
Omission: always
گاهی هم فی البداهه از خودش داستانی می ساخت داستانهایی سر هم بندی می کرد،‌افسانه ها و قصه هایی که از توانایی تخیل و رویا پردازی او پرده بر می داشت و همیشه عبدالله را به شگفتی وا می داشت.(46)
Addition:
فی البداهه / افسانه ها
Fauxsens: He made them up on the spot:
داستانهایی سر هم بندی می کرد
Discussion of Sample 11.
In both translations there is fauxsens included “unmasking” in male translation and “he made them up on the spot” in female translation it means that these words and sentence translated in a false way. And also there is addition in female translation like “felbedahe” and “afsaneha” which is called addition according to Waddington.As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
The male translator omitted an adverb “always” and didn’t translate it in the target textwhile there isn’t any omission in the female translation.
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g., “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
Sample 12. Father never felt more present to Abdullah, more vibrant, revealed, and more truthful, than when he told his stories, as though the tales were pinholes into his opaque, inscrutable world.(14)
عبدالله جز موقع قصه گویی پدر را این همه پرشور، بی ابهام و صادق نمی دید، انگار قصه روزنی است به دنیای مبهم و اسرار آمیزش.(42)
هیچگاه حضور پدر در نظر عبدالله به اندازه ی مواقعی که داستان می گفت واقعی،‌پرطراوت و آشکار نبود. انگار افسانه هایش روزن های ریزی بودند گشوده به دنیای مبهم و مرموز درونش.(46)
Fauxsens: more vibrant:
واقعی
Addition:
درونش/ گشوده
Discussion of Sample 12.
In the male translation, there is nothing to make it less accurate and in this case the translation is completely writer-based translation.
About the female translation, there is a phrase “more vibrant” which is translated falsely which is called faux sens. And also in female one the researcher found omission which are “daroonash” and “ghoshoode”and as mentioned above these two factors and other six factors didn’t see in the male translation.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Sample 13.Then a worse thought wormed its way into his head. Father was dead. Someone had slit his throat. Bandits, they had killed him, and now they were closing in on him

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