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also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Sample 7. In the end, Baba Ayub Collected from just outside the house five rocks of identical size and shape. On the face of each he scribbled the name of one child, and when he was done he tossed the rocks into a burlap sack.(5)
سر آخر بابا ایوب بیرون خانه چهار سنگ هم شکل و هم اندازه پیدا کرد. روی هر سنگ اسم یک بچه اش را نوشت و بعد سنگ ها را در کیسه ای ریخت.(13)
Fauxsens: collected: پیدا کرد
Loss of meaning: scribbled:
نوشت (بد نوشتن)
Omission: when he was done/ burlap
آخر سر هم بابا ایوب از خانه بیرون رفت و پنج قلوه سنگ با شکل ها و اندازه های یکسان پیدا کرد. روی هر سنگ نام یکی از فرزندانش را نوشت. کارش که تمام شد، همه ی سنگ ها را در توبره ی عباسی انداخت.(14)
Fauxsens: collected:
پیدا کرد
Loss of meaning: scribbled:
نوشت (بد نوشتن)
Addition:
عباسی
Discussion of Sample 7.
Both male and female translator translated the verb “collected” in a false way. A word is added in female translation “Abasi” while addition cannot be seen in male translation. Another factor in Waddington which can be seen in both male and female translation is loss of meaning of the word “scribbled” that both of translators just translated a part of this word and it’s not translated completely.As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men. In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g., “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306). So in this case the male translator omitted one word “burlap” and a phrase “when he was done” and there isn’t such a thing in female translation.
Sample 8.And now autumn’s end was in sight once more. Winter was already lurking around the corner, though neither father nor Parwana spoke about it, as though saying the word might hasten its arrival. (13)
و حالا آخر پاییز در پیش بود. زمستان دیگر در کمین فرصت بود، هر چند نه پروانه حرفش را می زد و نه پدر، انگار اگر حرفش را بزنی، آمدنش را جلو می اندازی.(40)
Omission: once more / around the corner
Inappropriate linguistic variation: Winter was already lurking around the corner:
زمستان دیگر در کمین فرصت بود
حالا بار دیگر پاییز داشت بار و بندیلش را جمع می کرد و حتما زمستان یواشکی گوشه ای کمین کرده بود؟. اما نه پدر و نه پروانه هیچ کدام حرفی در موردش نمی زدند، انگار اگر نامش را می بردند زودتر از راه می رسید.(43)
Inappropriate linguistic variation: autumn’s end:
پاییزداشت بار و بندیلش را جمع می کرد
Fauxsens: already:
یواشکی
Discussion of Sample 8.
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend (1975) claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men. In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g. “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? These claims about tag questions and insecurity have been tested by others (Dubois and Crouch, 1975, and Brower, Gerritsen, and De Haan, 1979) and found wanting: experimental data do not necessarily confirm intuitive judgments. The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
Based on Waddington, the male translator omitted two phrases “once more” and “around the corner” while there isn’t any omission in the female one.
Another factor in analyzing the accuracy of translation is inappropriate linguistic variation which is found in the male translation in translating this sentence ” Winter was already lurking around the corner” and in the female translation there is another phrase “autumn’s end” which is translated inappropriately.Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304).
The female translator translates “already” falsely and according to Wardagh it is called faux sens and there isn’t any faux sens in male translation.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff (1973), for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Sample 9. He sensed Pari wanted to get her hands dirty, climb down into the mud, and that she was disappointed with the task father had assigned her.“Without you fetching us water, we’ll never get the guesthouse built.” (13)
حس کرد پری می خواهد دست و بالش کثیف شود،‌ گل لگد کند، و از کاری که پدر به عهده اش گذاشته دلخور شده است. ” اگر تو برامان آب نیاری، نمی توانیم مهمانخانه را بسازیم.”(41)
Fauxsens: disappointed:
دلخور شدن
Omission: never
احساس می کرد پری دلش می خواهد دستانش را خاک و خلی کند؟ و توی کاهگل بغلتد و برای همین از مسئولیتی که پدر برای او در نظر گرفته بود حسابی ناامید شده بود. ” اگر با آب به دادمان نرسی، اصلا نمی توانیم مهمانخانه را بسازیم.”(44)
Inappropriate linguistic variation: dirty:
خاک و خلی کند
Fetching:
به دادمان نرسی(creating an inappropriate tone)
Fauxsens: climb down:
بغلتد
Mud:
کاهگل
Addition:
حسابی
Discussion of Sample 8.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff (1973), for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
The male translator translate “disappointed” in a false way while the male translator translate “climb down” and “mud” falsely. There is an addition in the female translation and the male translator didn’t add anything to his translation.
The male translator omitted a word “never” while there isn’t any omission in the female translation.As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat,

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