منابع پایان نامه با موضوع tradition، interest، semantic

not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304). Another factor is about inappropriate linguistic variation of “no one else will” which used the literary tone to make it more reader-oriented while this phrase is not written literary.
Sample 20.“Wow,” Adel said—stupidly, he knew, but he couldn’t think of another reply. The Closest he had ever come to Manual labor was one afternoon three years ago when he’d helped the gardener plant a few apple saplings in the backyard of their house in Kabul.(65)
عادل گفت: ” وای!” می دانست احمقانه است، اما چیز دیگری به زبانش نیامد. سنگین ترین کار بدنی او این بود که سه سال پیش بعدازظهر روزی به باغبان کمک کرده بود چند تا نهال سیب در حیاط خلوت خانه شان در کابل بکارد. (304)
Fauxsens: he couldn’t think of:
به زبانش نیامد
عادل گفت:‌” وای!” خودش هم می دانست جواب احمقانه ای از دهانش پریده، اما آن موقع جواب دیگری به ذهنش نمی رسید. تنها دفعه ای که عادل کار یدی کرده بود سه سال پیش بود که به باغبان کمک کرده بود در حیاط خانه شان در کابل چند نهال سیب بکارد.(310)
Addition:
خودش هم / جواب از دهانش پریده
Omission: one afternoon
Discussion of Sample 20.
The male translator translated “he couldn’t think of” falsely while there isn’t any word or phrase which is translated in a different way in female translation. In the female translation “khodash ham” and “javab az dahanash paride” were added to the target text while there isn’t any equivalence for them in the source text.As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
The female translator omitted a phrase “one afternoon” and she didn’t translate it to the target text. As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g. “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
The purpose of this research was to find the differences between male and female translation of literary texts, in order to answer this question that besides all the differences that male and female have in their languages as Wardaugh mentioned whether there is any differences in their translation of literary texts or not. Wardaugh mentioned the phonological differences, suprasegmental, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and the communication. With regarding to social differences between men and women he notes to tendency of both genders to different issues for speaking and he knows the cause of brevity and speech reduction from underlying interests. Then he mentioned the communication strategies such as controversy, react (asking questions, encouraging to speak, confirmation), interrupting speech, the different goals of it (empathy, control, etc.) and the difference between the sexes. To find this fact, the researcher used the Waddington model of accuracy in translation which consists of 8 factors that make the translation less accurate.
Contresens which means writing a sentence the meaning of which is exactly the opposite of what you mean. So, in translation, it occurs when the meaning of the translation is opposite of the meaning of the source text. Another factor is faux sens, it can be defined as “mistranslation”. It occurs when some part is translated in a false sense and has got a false meaning as compared with the source text. Number three is Nonsens, it is a German word which in English means “nonsense”. It occurs when some part is translated in a nonsensical way and has got a nonsensical meaning compared with the source text. Number four is Addition, it occurs when some part is added in the translation that does not have any equivalent in the source text. The other factor is Omission that occurs when some part of the meaning of the source text is omitted in the translation, i.e. some part exists in the source text but it is not translated in the target text. Number six is Unresolved Extra linguistic References, It occurs when there is not an appropriate extra linguistic reference in the translation; extra linguistic references are the references such as footnotes, prefaces, intertextual additions, endnotes, etc. which help the reader to understand the meaning and they are some additional information in the translation. Number seven is Loss of Meaning; it occurs when the meaning of the source text is not completely transferred to the TT and in the process of translation some part of the meaning is lost. Number eight is Inappropriate Linguistic Variation, it occurs when there is a change of register, style, dialect, etc. in the process of translation from source text into target text.
Based on these factors of Waddington model, the researcher analyzed the data, which are about 200 sentences of the novel “And the mountains echoed” and two translation of it from a male and a female translator. After analyzing the data, the researcher found the following results:
The first strategy is contresens, in male translation there is not any contresens, but in female translation 3 words and phrases are contresens, that shows female translators in this case tend to change the meaning more than male translators.
The second strategy is fauxsens, in male translation there are 57 cases of it and in the female translation there are 68 cases, which shows female translators translate more falsely than the male translator and it shows less accurate translation in female version.
The third strategy is nonsense, that the number of this one is equal in both male and female translator.
The forth strategy is addition, in male translation there are 44 cases of addition but in the female one there are 218 cases of it that shows that the female translator is less accurate than the male one.
The other strategy is omission, in male translation, the researcher found 122 cases of omitting the word that exist in ST but they don’t translate to the TT. The number of omission in the female translation is 100 cases which show the female translator omit less words of the ST in the TT.
There aren’t any unresolved extralinguistic references in both male translation and the female one.
The seventh strategy is loss of meaning, in male translation there are 5 cases but in the female one there are 9 cases, it means that the female translator doesn’t keep the layers of meaning in the St and it occurs more than the male translator.
The last strategy is inappropriate linguistic variation, in the male translation there are 23 cases of it but in the female translation there are 51 words and phrases which shows the female translator uses more words and phrases inappropriately in her translation so it is more inaccurate than the male one.
Extracting accurate words and their pertinent translation types in each translation, the number of the categories used in male and female translations is calculated and these analyses are based on this chart that represented in the following table.
Table 4.1: Frequency of categories applied to the translation of “And the Mountains Echoed
No
Category
The number of Categories in the Male translator
Frequency of Categories in the Female translator
1
Contresens
3
2
Faux sens
57
68
3
Nonsens
1
1
4
Addition
44
218
5
Omission
122
100
6
Unresolved Extralinguistic References
7
Loss of Meaning
5
9
8
Inappropriate Linguistic Variation
23
51
9
Total
252
450
According to these analyses and this chart, the answer of the question of this research is cleared that female translation is somehow different and maybe less accurate than male translation in this novel “And the Mountains Echoed” because the number of factors of Waddington model in female translation are more than male translation.
CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion, Implications and Suggestions for Further Research
Chapter 5
5. Conclusion, implications and

تکه های دیگری از این پایان نامه را می توانید

در شماره بندی فوق بخوانید

متن کامل پایان نامه ها در سایت homatez.com موجود است

You may also like...

Add a Comment