منابع پایان نامه با موضوع tradition، بزرگسالان

که در طول روز و حتی هنگام خواب هم دست از راه رفتن برنمی داشت. شب ها در خواب از خانه ی کاهگلی بیرون می رفت و زیر نور مهتاب پرسه می زد.(11)
Omission: learned/ While he was awake/ At night/ Troublingly/ Family/ Sleepwalk/ Darkness/
Addition:
پاهایش
Inappropriate linguistic variation: He learned to walk:
پاهایش به راه رفتن باز شد
Discussion of Sample 4.
The male translator omitted the word “learned” like female one that omitted this word and some other phrases such as “while he was awake” and “at night” and other words. Wardaugh said,” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g, “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
The male translator chose a different equivalent for two verbs “walk” and “wander off” that are faux sens according to Waddington model of accuracy while in female translator we didn’t see such a thing. But the female translator added a word to the target text which is “pahayash”. As Wardaugh said it is because of morphology and vocabulary.Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages Wardaugh (1986, p. 304). The female translator used inappropriate linguistic variation for translating (he learned to walk) but in male translation this factor isn’t seen. As Wardaugh said men and women are different in their speech styles and this fact is reflected in their styles of translating and finding equivalences for the source text.
Sample 5.They said there were giant skewers and fire pits. They said that if it caught a trespasser, the div was known to overcome its aversion to adult meat.(4)
می گفتند سیخ های خیلی گنده و آتشدان آنجاست. معروف بود که اگر کسی گذرش به آنجا بیفتد، دیو به بیزاریش از گوشت بزرگسالان غلبه می کند.(12)
Inappropriate linguistic variation: giant:
خیلی گنده
Omission: was known
Fauxsens: if it caught a trespasser:
اگر کسی گذرش به آنجا بیفتد
می گفتند قلعه پر است از سیخ های بزرگ و حفره های آتش. می گفتند اگر کسی زیر بار زورش نمی رفت، دیو بیزاریش را از گوشت بزرگسالان کنار می گذاشت و آنها را هم می بلعید.(13)
Addition: قلعه پر است / آنها را هم می بلعید
Omission: was known
Loss of meaning: giant: بزرگ (عظیم)
Fauxsens: if it caught a trespasser: اگر کسی زیر بار زورش نمی رفت
Discussion of Sample 5.
The female translator used an inappropriate linguistic variation for “giant” in a colloquial way that not existed in the female translator. Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304). As Wardaugh said men and women are different in their speech styles and this fact is reflected in their styles of translating and finding equivalences for the source text.
Both of the translators omitted the passive verb “was known” and they didn’t transfer the meaning of it in the target text. As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g., “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
So, the researcher saw that gender has impression on determining grammar it means that men and women have different choices of grammar.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
The female translator added two phrases which are not in the male translation these two phrases are “ghale por ast” and “anha ra ham mibaliid”.So, it refers to Wardaugh that men and women are grammatically and morphologically different because these two translations of one sentence are structurally different.
Both of the translators translate this sentence “if we caught a trespasser” in different way which is faux sense as Wardaugh said about it. This difference in choosing the equivalence of the word refers to their differences in choosing and using different vocabularies that shows men and women are morphologically different.
The female translator lost part of meaning of the “giant” word which called loss of meaning according to Wardaugh.This refers to the morphology and vocabulary of Wardaugh.
Sample 6. I guess you know which rooftop received the div’s dreaded tap. Upon hearing it, Baba Ayub let an agonized cry escape from his lips, and his wife fainted cold.(5)
گمانم بدانید تپ تپ ترسناک دیو به کدام بام خورد. بابا ایوب با شنیدن تپ تپ بی اختیار نعره ی دردناکی سرداد و زنش در جا غش کرد.(13)
Inappropriate linguistic variation: tap:
تپ تپ
Addition:
بی اختیار / در جا
بله به گمانم حدس زده اید ضربه ی وحشتناک دیو به سقف کدام خانه اثابت کرد؟. به محض شنیدن ضربه، آه از نهاد بابا ایوب برآمد و همسرش غش و ضعف کرد.(13)
Addition:
بله
Fauxsens: you know: حدس زده اید
Inappropriate linguistic variation: let an agonized cry escape from his lips:
آه از نهاد برآمدن
Discussion of Sample 6.
The male translator used “tap” inappropriately and translate it in a colloquial way while this word is translated correctly by the male translator and he translate this phrase ” let an agonized cry escape from his lips” inappropriately.Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304).
The male translator added two words to the target text while there aren’t in the source text. They are “biekhtiar” and “darja” but in the female translation there is addition but in another word “bale”. Another word which was translated falsely is “you know” in the female translation.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are

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