منابع پایان نامه با موضوع pronunciation، Translation، tradition

political texts, it is possible to pay attention to different qualities on the translation of these texts. It can be considered as career counseling it means that every person does job according to his or her profession and specialty. So, with regarding these factors translation agencies employ the exact translators for translating different texts.
In this thesis, it is showed that in addition to differenteffective factors on translation quality, the gender of translator is among these factors that affect the product of the translator. So, by considering different studies on the influence of gender on different matters such as literary, scientific and politically texts, by considering gender of translator, it is possible to pay attention to different qualities on the translation of these texts. It can be considered as career counseling it means that every person do job according to his or her profession and specialty. So, with regarding these factors translation agencies employ the exact translators for translating different texts
So, the researcher is going to study the effect of translator’s gender and the difference between male and female one on accuracy in translating “And the Mountains Echoed” novel.
1.6. Definition of Key Terms:
Gender in translation:according to Kamarae and Spender (2000, p.900), define gender as the term which is “ used by many scholars and activists, refers to the socially constructed and socially expected differences between men and women as opposed to sex, which refers to the biological distinction between females and males.”
Accuracy in translation: according to Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146), it is “the exactitude or precision of the meaning conveyed” that representations of the faithfulness in translation, and showing how accurately the translator has managed to reproduce the message of the ST into the TL.
Author-oriented translation: according to Stein, author was the determiner of a text’s meaning. The text meant what theauthor of the text consciously willed to convey by the words him or her hadwritten. Texts were understood as a form of communication, and in communicationwe seek to understand what the author of that communication seeks to convey.
CHAPTER TWO
Review of the Related Literature
Chapter 2
2. Review of the Related Literature
2.1. Overview
Translation is the process of transferring the message of the source text language into the target language; therefore, the translator deals with two languages. Then, many factors which affect the quality of language may affect the quality of translation. Many studies have been conducted on gender and language and it seems that each gender has got its own certain language and applies some particular linguistic features and forms more or less than other gender for specific purposes. Gender is one of the most significant factors that nowadays researchers have taken into a great consideration and devoted their life to investigate different effects which gender may have on different aspects of translation. (Ghodrati 1388, 2009 A.d. p.12). A major issue in sociolinguistic studies has been the relation between gender and language.
The data was selected from “And the mountain echoed” novel by “Khaled Hossini” and two translations of it by a male “Mehdi Ghebrayi” and a female translator “Nastaran Zahiri”.
Khaled Hosseini
Khaled Hosseini was born in Afghanistan, the oldest of five children, and spent the first years of his childhood in the capital city, Kabul. Although Afghan culture lacked a long tradition of literary fiction, Hosseinienjoyed reading foreign novels in translation and began to compose stories of his own.When Khaled Hosseini was a child, he read great dealofPersian poetry, especially the poems of sufis such as Rumi,Hafez, Omar Khayyám, Abdul-Qādir Bēdil, and others. He nowcalls the collected poems of Hafez, the Divan-e-Hafez as hisfavorite book. He also cites a Farsi translation of JackLondon’s White Fangas a keyinfluence on his youthfulimagination,as well as Persian translations of novelsranging from to Mickey Spillane’s MikeHammerseries.
In March 2001, while practicing medicine, Hosseini began writing his first novel, The KiteRunner. Published by Riverhead Booksin 2003, that debut went on to become an internationalbestseller and beloved classic. In May 2007, his second novel, AThousand Splendid Suns, debuted at #1 on theNew York Times bestseller list, remaining inthat spot for fifteen weeks and nearly an entireyear on the bestseller list. Together, the two books have sold more than 10 million copiesin the UnitedStates and more than 38 million copies worldwide. The Kite Runner Wasadapted into a graphic novel of the same name in 2011. Hosseini’s much awaited thirdnovel, And the Mountains Echoed, published on May 21, 2013. Rather, the book is written similarly to a collection of short stories, with each of the nine chapters being told from the perspective of a different character. The book’s foundation is built on the relationship between ten-year-old Abdullah and his three-year-old sister Pari and their father’s decision to sell her to a childless couple in Kabul, an event that ties the various narratives together.
2.2. Language and gender
The earliest research about language and gender can be traced back to as early as ancient Greek. At that time, many dramas witnessed gender differences in language. However, it was not until the early 20th century that language and gender attracted anthropologists’ and linguists’ attention.
Though there is a trend to study language and gender, it has not become an independent linguistic topic until the 1960s, when feminist movement appeared and sociolinguistics advanced. In the 1770s, such well-known linguists as Lakoff, Trudgill, Zimmerman, West, Thorne and Henley made a great contribution to the study by exploring the social roots of gender differences in language. Gradually, studies began to flourish. In the early 1980s, Bolinger and other linguists thought of gender differences in language as a kind of sexism.
Since language is used as a tool for human communication, it is inevitably featured by gender. For quite a long time, language and gender studies have been a heated issue in sociolinguistics and pragmatics. Former studies focus on linguistic levels such as phonology, grammar, syntax and gender differences. However, few of them are conducted in specific contexts. With the development of society, language and gender study in a certain context deserves to be conducted. Li (2014, pp. 52-57)
Many studies have been conducted on gender and language and it seems that each gender has got its own certain language and applies some particular linguistic features and forms more or less than other gender for specific purposes.
Kamarae and Spender (2000:900) define gender as the term which is “ used by many scholars and activists, refers to the socially constructed and socially expected differences between men and women as opposed to sex, which refers to the biological distinction between females and males.”
Lakoff, in 1975, published an influential account of women’s language. This was the book “Language and Woman’s Place”. This book introduces to the field of sociolinguistics many ideas about women’s language that are now often commonplace. It has inspired many different strategies for studying language and gender, across national borders as well as across class and race lines.Her work is noted for its attention to class, power, and social justice in addition to gender. In a related article, “Woman’s language” she published a set of basic assumptions about what marks out the language of women. She identified a “women’s register,” which she argued served to maintain women’s (inferior) role in society. Lakoff argued that women tend to use linguistic forms that reflect and reinforce a subordinate role. These include tag questions, question intonation, and “weak” directives, among others. Lakoff also have been labeled the “deficit approach,” since they posit that one gender is deficient in terms of the other. Descriptions of women’s speech as deficient can actually be dated as far back as Otto Jespersen’s “The Woman,” a chapter in his 1922 book Language: “Its Nature and Development”. Jespersen’s idea that women’s speech is deficient relative to a male norm went largely unchallenged until Lakoff’s work appeared fifty years later. Nevertheless, despite the political incorrectness of the chapter’s language from a modern perspective, Jespersen’s contributions remain relevant. These include the prospect of language change based on social and gendered opportunity, lexical and phonological differences, and the idea of genderlects and gender roles influence language.Lakoff proposes that women’s speech can be distinguished from that of men in a number of ways, including:
1. Hedges: Phrases like “sort of”, “kind of”, “it seems like”
2. Empty adjectives: “divine”, “adorable”, “gorgeous”
3. Super-polite forms: “Would you mind…” “…if it’s not too much to ask” “Is it o.k. if…?”
4. Apologize more: “I’m sorry, but I think that…”
5. Speak less frequently
6. Avoid coarse language or expletives
7. Tag questions: “You don’t mind eating this, do you?” Subsequent research has cast some doubt on this proposition
8. Hyper-correct grammar and pronunciation: Use of prestige grammar and clear articulation
9. Indirect requests: “Wow, I’m so thirsty.” – really asking for a drink
10. Speak in italics: Use tone to emphasis certain words, e.g., “so”, “very”, “quite”
11. Use direct quotation: men paraphrase more

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