منابع پایان نامه با موضوع and، the، of

and Pari, taking their time, relishing it, making a game of it.(14)
بعد فکر بدتری به ذهنش خزید. پدر مرده بود. یکی گلویش را بریده بود. راهزنان او را کشته بودند و حالا او و پری را در محاصره داشتند، سر فرصت مزمزه می کردند و تفریح می کردند.(43)
Fauxsens: closing in on:
در محاصره داشتند
اینجا بود که بدترین فکر ممکن همچون ماری سمی به مغزش خزید. پدر مرده بود. کسی گلویش را بیخ تا بیخ بریده بود. راهزن ها پدر را کشته بودند و حالا داشتند به او و پری نزدیک می شدند. سر صبر از کشتن آنها لذت می بردند و تفریح میکردند.(47)
Fauxsens:
Then:
اینجا بود
Worse:
بدترین
Addition:
بیخ تا بیخ / همچون ماری سمی
Discussion of Sample 13.
In this example, the researcher just found some mistakes and inaccurate translation from the point of meaning and vocabulary. So, As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
In male translation there is a faux sens which is “closing in on” in female translation there are two cases of faux sens included; “then” and “worse” that are translated falsely. And also in female translation there are two cases of addition that are “bikh ta bikh” and “hamchon mari sami” it means that some words comes to translation or target text which are not existed in the source text.
Sample 14.He lost track of how many times and for how long he called for his father but no answer came forth from the dark. He pictured faces, hidden in the mountains bulging from the earth, watching, grinning down at him and Pari with malice (15)
نمی دانست چند بار و چه مدت پدرش را صدا زده، اما جوابی از تاریکی نیامد. صورت هایی را خیال می کرد که پشت کوه پنهان شده یا از زمین سربرمی آوردند، نگاهشان می کنند، و با بدخواهی به او و پری پوزخند می زدند.( 44)
Fauxsens: He lost track:
نمی دانست
پاک از خاطرش رفته بود چند بار پدر را صدا زده و چه مدت دنبالش گشته بود،‌ اما دریغ از کوچکترین جوابی. صورت هایی را تصور کرد که از کوه و کمر بالا آمده و جایی کمین کرده اند و دارند موذیانه او و پری را ریشخند می کنند.(49)
Omission: his / from the dark / from the earth / watching
Addition:
دنبالش گشته بود / کمر / کوچکترین
Fauxsens: hidden:
بالا آمده
Discussion of Sample 14.
The male translator translate “he lost track” falselyand also in the female translation there is a faux sense in this verb “hidden”.In female one there is another factor of Waddington it means addition in such words and phrases “donbalash gashte bood”, “kamar” and “koochecktarin”.As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (20006, p.321) In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g., “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306). Thereis also some words and phrases which are added in female translation “his”, “from the dark”, “from the earth” and “watching”.
Sample 15. “You’re going to wake your sister.” “Don’t leave us.” “That’s enough of that now.” Abdullah lay down again, his sister clutched tightly in his arms, his heart battering in his throat. (15)
” حالا خواهرت بیدار می شود.”‌ “ما را ترک نکن.” ” حالا دیگر بسه.” عبدالله باز دراز کشید ، خواهرش سخت به بازویش چنگ انداخت و تپش قلبش را در گلو حس می کرد.(44)
Addition:
حالا
Omission: be going to
Fauxsens: his sister clutched tightly in his arms:
خواهرش سخت به بازویش چنگ انداخت
Inappropriate linguistic variation: his heart battering in his throat:
تپش قلبش را در گلو حس می کرد.
” می خواهی خواهرت را پیدا کنی؟” ” ما را ترک نکن.” ” بس است دیگر.” عبدالله دوباره دراز کشید. خواهرش را تنگ در آغوش گرفت. قلبش به سینه اش می کوبید.(49)
Fauxsens: to wake:
پیدا کنی
Omission: now
Discussion of Sample 15.
In the male translation there is anaddition of the word “hala” and there isn’t any addition in the female one.And another thing is faux sense which is found in both of them. In male translation, there is a sentence “his sister clutched tightly in his arms” which was translated falsely and in the female translation, there is a verb “to wake” that translated falsely. As mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g., “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306). About another factor of Waddington which is called omission both of the translators used this factor in their translation. In male translation, for this word “be going to” in female one for this word “now”.
Sample 16. He had visited a few smaller towns on jobs with Father, but never a real city, and certainly nothing Uncle Nabi had said could have prepared him for the hustle and bustle of the biggest and busiest city of them all. (15)
برای کار همراه پدر به شهرهای کوچک رفته بود، اما هرگز شهر واقعی را ندیده بود و قطعا حرف های دایی نبی برای این غوغا و جنجال بزرگترین و پرمشغله ترین شهری که دیده بود آماده اش نکرده بود.(45)
Omission: a few
تا حالا به دلیل کار و بار پدر چند شهر کوچک تر را دیده بود، اما هیچ کدامشان شهر واقعی نبودند. تازه، تعریف هایی که از زبان دایی نبی درباره ی کابل شنیده بود کجا و هیاهو و شلوغ پلوغی آن بزرگترین شهری که به عمرش دیده بود کجا.(48)
Addition:
تا حالا
Fauxsens: certainly:
تازه
Inappropriate linguistic variation: on jobs:
به دلیل کار و بار(Creating a colloquial tone)
Discussion of Sample 16.
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise andpoliteness more often than men Wardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to

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